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What Is Technology? Meaning, Types And Impacts Explained 


By Nerly Shammah Jul 23, 2023


The word "technology" is the coming together of two words: "technique" and "ology" where the latter refers to "a study". This means that technology is simply the study of diverse techniques to perform various tasks.


Image representation of technology



In today's rapidly evolving world, technology has become an indispensable aspect of human life, although it has largely been defined specifically through the lens of  "heavy machines" and "super inventions", technology is much more than that, in its very basic form it represents the leverage of various working techniques. 


From the simplest of tools to the most sophisticated machines, technology has undoubtedly undergone constant advancements through developments over the years, revolutionizing how humans work and relate all while improving the quality of life. 


To explain further, in this article, we will explore the multifaceted nature of technology, its types and historical roots, and also its impact across various crucial sectors, providing insights into how this dynamic force has transformed human civilization.


The Definition Of Technology 


At its core, technology can be defined as the application of techniques and scientific knowledge to create tools or build practical solutions to diverse life processes. 


It encompasses a wide range of inventions, methods, and techniques that contribute to the progress and development of societies. 


Technology is not limited to just heavy machines or electronic gadgets or computer programs; it cuts across diverse fields of study and life processes, such as agriculture, medicine, transportation, communication, energy, and lots more. 


Technology is intended to empower humanity by making work and task completion more effective and ultimately improve the quality and standard of living. 


Historical Roots of Technology


Based on research, the roots of technology can be traced back to prehistoric times when early humans devised rudimentary tools for hunting, gathering, and building shelters. 


When you reflect on our focus on the word "technique" in this article, you understand better how technology isn't largely about wires or screens, but simply the arts of deploying effective and efficient ways to perform work. 


The development of agriculture marked a significant milestone, allowing communities and nations to thrive, given that man is largely dependent on food to survive, this happens to be technology's most positively impacted sector. 


That being said, over the years, technology has progressed with notable innovations like the wheels, writing systems, and the printing press coming into the picture as the way for the transmission of knowledge and the spread of ideas.


Of course, modern systems have largely made the spread of knowledge much more rapid thanks to widespread software developments. 


However, the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries, reportedly, was the turning point that transformed societies on a global scale. 


Steam engines, mechanization, and mass production led to unprecedented economic growth and urbanization. 


That said, the digital technology revolution took the late 20th century, propelling advanced work processes to the forefront of human life by ushering in the "Information Age" - as aforementioned, the grand size development of software technologies and systems, the fundamental aid to the wide range transmission of ideas and information. 


Types And Critical Fields of Technology


1. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)


ICT happens to be one of the most popular forms of technology due to its impact on the way information is processed, stored, and moved around. 


Computers, the internet, and smartphones all fall under this category as a product of information and communication technology. 


The digital age has enabled instant communication and access to vast amounts of knowledge. Social networks, search engines, and chatbots in recent times have all reshaped and improved human interactions and the distribution of knowledge. 


2. Medicine and Healthcare Technology


Healthcare has seen substantial improvements over the years due to medical technology, the application of scientific knowledge has led to the building of several tools and machines that aid in healthcare. 


A notable example includes advanced imaging techniques, such as MRI and CT scans, aiding healthcare personnel to gain precise diagnostics. 


Also, integrating robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) into surgical procedures in modern times has also aided in enhancing precision and minimizing invasiveness. 


Biotechnology and genetic engineering are also seeing great promises for personalized medicine and curing diseases that were once incurable.


3. Transportation Technology


In this modern time, we have electric vehicles and reportedly even flying cars are about to be released, this hasn't always been the case obviously, but due to the effects of technological practices, from the invention of wheels to the development of automobiles, aeroplanes, and high-speed trains, transportation technology has revolutionized the movement of people and goods. 


 The development surrounding electric and autonomous vehicles aims to reduce carbon emissions and enhance road safety further which ultimately improves the quality of human life. 


4. Energy Technology


Sustainability is in demand across various developing sectors in current times, the demand for sustainable and renewable energy sources has led to significant advancements in energy technology. 




Solar panels, wind turbines, and hydroelectric power are a couple of notable examples amongst others in the field of renewable energy solutions that offer cleaner alternatives to traditional fossil fuels.


5. Space Exploration Technology


I can't help but believe someone might come to your mind as you read that, am I right? 


I was tempted to say this when I mentioned Electric Vehicles(EVs) but I had to save it for this one. 


Space exploration has captivated humanity's imagination for decades. Personalities like Elon Musk, the face of Twitter, the doge daddy, the lead in the EV industry with Tesla is also glued to the business of building technologies for space exploration with SpaceX - a vision of building Earth on Mars they say. 


That said, technological innovations in things like rockets and satellites are all baby steps towards ushering in a new age where space exploration is safe and ultimately improves humanity. 


6. Environmental Technology


Environmental challenges, such as climate change and pollution have caused increasing damage to human life, this has led to the development of environmental technologies including waste management systems, recycling, and green infrastructures aimed at mitigating the impact of basic human activities on the planet.


7. Blockchain Technology 


Finance before now has been largely centralized and restricted to geo locations, with blockchain technology, the movement of value across the globe has been achieved, the distributed ledger technology applied in blockchain developments gives individuals control over their finances which also offers security and scalability


That said, blockchain technology isn't only limited to finance as though its simply a technology used to improve the storage of information or data, thus, blockchain can be used in various other fields where data is at the core of operations like supply chain management, business management, social networks and so on. 


8. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning


AI and machine learning have revolutionized the way computers process data and make decisions. They are at the heart of various applications, including virtual assistants, autonomous vehicles, recommendation systems, and fraud detection systems.


If you live in the 21st century or upwards and are not some old-time traveller breaking the laws of the universe by moving through time and space to read this article, you probably are already exposed to various AI systems and ML algorithms. 


These systems are one of the latest stages of technological developments speculated to lead the world into an era of mass autonomous systems and effectively higher work efficiency or as some technophobic individuals would call it: "The Age Of Mass Laziness" where humans do nothing by simply outsourcing all the work to machines, oh well. 


Impact of Technology on Society


Technology has had a bit of positive and negative impacts on society. By incredibly making work easier, technology has caused a major shift in strong working populations. 


Of course, this is debatable and isn't the only negative effect as though many tech structures have been a source of major lousy health conditions. 




However, the technological space is ever-evolving and new structures are being developed to combat these negative impacts. 


The transformative impact of technology includes its facilitation of global connectivity, allowing people from different corners of the world to collaborate and share knowledge. 


The improvement of how we do work, easy access to global products and services via E-commerce platforms, telemedicine making healthcare more accessible, and the latest being blockchain technology revolutionizing money and financial inclusion, all have collectively aided in improving human life. 


Although there are lots of concerns regarding the unintended consequences of technology lately due to the rise of autonomous systems in cars, blockchains with the aid of smart contracts and the increased developments of AIs have raised questions about job displacements and economic inequality. 


Additionally, privacy concerns, misinformation, and cyberbullying have seen a major spike in interest due to the extensive list of growing social media platforms. 


Striking a balance between technological advancements and ethical living remains a significant challenge for society.


In conclusion, technology is the driving force behind major human progress, innovation and success. 


Technology encompasses a vast array of fields as aforementioned, but each sector contributes to the betterment of society in its own unique way. From wheels to the hills of artificial intelligence and to the blocks of distributed ledgers, technology has shaped the course of human history. 


That said, it is important that we embrace technology with more focus on a sustainable future so as to enable us to continue to innovate, build and evolve within a system that protects the ultimate goal of technology which is improving our quality and standard of living. 



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